Power Conditioning Systems
Types of Applications:
The concept of power conditioning
envelopes a broad range of topics in order to provide Facility Wide power
protection. As microprocessors become smaller and faster, they are more
sensitive and may be damaged by repetitive low-level transients and noise
caused by lightning, power grid switching, switching power supplies (found
in most computers), large motor loads, and Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs).
(fire, police, ambulance)
Office Buildings and Hotels
Computer and TeleCommunications
Universities, Schools, and Playground
Hospital and Military Installations
Industrial Facilities with Large
The following is a list of
significant types of quality problems that are commonly found in modern
Axiom Engineering incorporates
a variety of techniques when solving power-quality problems depending on
the potential source of the disruption(s). The following represents some
of the most common solutions we specify.
are usually the most recognized and are a result of a permanent electrical
fault in utility distribution system(s).
the name suggests, these are temporary total-voltage loss events that are
typically caused by automatic overcurrent protection devices tripped by
the utility grid while clearing faults in their distribution system(s).
are defined as events where the voltage levels on a transmission line/circuit
are lower than the specified nominal level (ie 120volts, 600volts, etc)
for a period of 2 seconds or less. These are usually a result of large
motor loads starting or electrical faults within the local distribution
are temporary voltage increases with a duration of 2 seconds or less. Surges
are typically caused by lightning or the switching of large loads.
are overvoltage conditions that last for less than one-half a voltage cycle
or 1/120th of a second. Since the actual waveform is a sharp rise and fall
of the voltage, impulses are commonly referred to as spikes or transients.
Lightning and load-switching can cause large impulses.
is a repetitive impulse that is superimposed on the power sine wave. Noise
can be caused by radio transmitters, lighting that incorporates ballasts
(fluorescent, HID, etc), battery chargers, computers, and even loose electrical
distortion is actually a form of noise and manifests itself as the superposition
of signals at multiples of the fundamental power frequency on the power
sine wave. The most commonly known are the triplin harmonics which
are notorious for damaging distribution equipment and electronics.
factor is defined as the ratio between the real power (measured in watts)
and the apparent power (measured in volt-amps or va) that must be
provided to run a piece of equipment. In simple terms, power factor is
a measure of the electrical efficiency of equipment or distribution system.
The ideal power factor value is '1' or unity. The local utility
imposes a penalty charge to clients that have power factors lower than
0.90 or 90% efficiency. A poor power factor reduces the load capacity of
the affected distribution system and could result in equipment damage,
overloads, and line noise. Large motor loads are the most common cause,
although lighting ballasts are also a concern in larger projects. By correcting
the power factor, your client could save thousands per year in utility
penalty charges while increasing his load capacity.
Regulating Line Filter (for voltage) - RLF
small electrical loads, we specify RLF units to keep equipment operational
through voltage sags and minor surges. The specification of these units
depends on the equipment load requirements and is reserved for load-specific
Isolating Line Filter - ILF
critical applications such as medical equipment and industrial computers
and PLCs, we recommend that ILFs be used to physically isolate the equipment
from the power source, while simultaneously providing noise filtering.
This type of filtering is also reserved for load-specific applications
and must be carefully specified.
is the backbone of ALL good power-quality solutions, whether external conditioning
methods are used or not. The proper grounding, bonding, and earthing of
electrical panelboards, wiring, conduits, and equipment is critical in
solving the majority of power-quality problems. We examine the equipment
and distribution configuration of each project and determine the areas
that require enhanced grounding techniques. We can also specify panelboards
to come complete with enhanced grounding systems to assist in facility-wide
power quality solutions.
Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors (TVSS)
TVSS is a well-known term in the building and electrical industry, its
proper use is not. TVSS works best when configured in a cascaded
protection system. These units can effectively cut power surges and provide
integral line filtering. By placing the correct TVSS on the main incoming
power supply and in key locations throughout the distribution system, the
overall transient protection can be 8-10 times higher than installing a
single TVSS at the main supply alone. We identify the equipment most susceptible
to surges and specify TVSS units to counteract the adverse effects. We
also specify TVSS units for incoming data and telecommunications lines
and at critical points in the communications infrastructure.
Uninterruptible Power Supply / Emergency Power Systems
specify small UPS units for desktop or single-server LAN systems as part
of the cascaded protection system. This ensures that the equipment and
associated applications are not affected by short-term (30-60minute) disturbances.
Like the majority of electrical
engineering design, power conditioning must be employed as a system-wide
approach to be most effective. Your client must obtain the maximum value
for each dollar spent - patch-work solution are not sufficient or cost-effective
in the long term.
outages, sags, surges, and noise needs to be addressed on a larger scale,
we specify UPS units and/or emergency generator systems. Please refer to
UPS section of
our list of services for additional information.
Click the menubar links to
the left under "Services Contents" to obtain
detailed information on each of the services we provide. If you'd like
us to submit a Fee Proposal for your project, please go to the Fee
Request Form.We look forward to working with you.